Gender Differences in Concussion Symptoms, Severity, and Recovery

Females are more likely to suffer a concussion compared to males, even in gender-matched sports like soccer. The likelihood of sustaining a concussion following an injury to the head or neck is 84% higher in female athletes compared to male athletes. Past research mainly focused on male subjects but a shift is occurring and differences in concussion symptoms between males … Read More

Hormone Imbalances After a Concussion

Concussions can cause damage to the pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus. This is harmful to the body as these structures are responsible for regulating hormones, thus resulting in hormone imbalance. In fact, early signs of hormone imbalance can appear within the first few hours or days after a concussion.   In addition to the physical impacts of hormone imbalance, many concussion … Read More

Neurotransmitters and Post-Concussion Symptoms

What are Neurotransmitters? Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers used by the nervous system in the body. These messengers transmit messages between nerve cells or between nerve cells and organs, muscles, or other tissues.  Neurotransmitters are grouped into different categories, based on their chemical structures. Amino Acids: e.g., glutamic acid, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), glycine and aspartic acid. Biogenic Amines: e.g., serotonin, dopamine, … Read More

Alcohol Consumption and Traumatic Brain Injuries

More than half of all traumatic brain injuries are directly or indirectly caused by alcohol with a large number of patients having elevated blood alcohol levels at the time of the injury. Specifically, binge drinking, defined as having 5 or more drinks on one occasion, is associated with TBI more than chronic drinking and is a risk factor for sustaining … Read More

Overview of Sports-Related Concussions

The majority of sports-related traumatic brain injuries are concussions with 1.6 to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occurring annually in the United States. The number of concussions diagnosed continues to rise due to enhanced public awareness and concerns regarding such injuries.  Some factors predict longer recovery time and these include a history of concussions, birth trauma, paediatric head injury, seizures, migraines, … Read More

Concussion in the Classroom: A Teacher’s Guide

Returning to school after enduring a concussion is a positive step towards recovery from a brain injury. Parents often feel scared, anxious, or uneasy about sending their children back to school due to the risk of another injury while playing, in addition to the cognitive demands of the classroom environment. However, for a holistic recovery, a collaborative effort between the … Read More

Social Support During Concussion Recovery

What is Social Support? Social support is the emotional and physical comfort and care given by family, friends, romantic partners, co-workers and others.   Types of Social Support Emotional Support Emotional support encompasses reassurance, love, and care. In particular, people are emotionally supportive when they regularly check in to see how you’re doing, tell you that they care about you, … Read More

The Effects of Multiple Concussions

Concussions often result in cognitive impairments, balance deficit, mood disturbances, and a range of other symptoms. But what happens when a person experiences multiple concussions?   Athletes, especially those playing contact sports like ice hockey or football, are at an increased risk of sustaining multiple concussions. It is estimated that a third of all individuals who have sustained a traumatic … Read More

Music Therapy Use and Benefits

What is Music Therapy?   Music therapy is a type of intervention that uses music and its elements to help improve quality of life, as well as physical, emotional, and intellectual health. It can be used in clinical practice, private practice, and community or educational settings. Patients can choose to have individual  sessions or group sessions with other patients. During … Read More

Traumatic Brain Injury Types and Classification

Traumatic brain injuries are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. In Canada, approximately 160,000 people sustain traumatic brain injuries each year with 11,000 deaths and over 6,000 cases of permanent disability. However, around 75% of all TBI incidents are considered mild, commonly referred to as a concussion, and are rarely fatal.   Classification TBI can be classified into … Read More